Islamic Education in America

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To enhance understanding of Al-Islam in light of a changing world, IMAS is providing the following articles to give an historical perspective of the Muslim African American experience regarding education.

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The Sister Clara Muhammad Schools: Pioneers in the Development of Islamic Education in America

Hakim M. Rashid and Zakiyyah Muhammad The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 61, No. 2, African Americans and Independent Schools: Status, Attainment, and Issues (Spring, 1992), pp. 178-185.


Islamic Schools in the United States: Perspectives of Identity, Relevance and Governance

by Zakiyyah Muhammad

“Faith and Courage to Educate Our Own: Reflections on Islamic Schools in the African American Community”

by Zakiyyah Muhammad; p. 261-279, in

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Black Education: A Transformative Research and Action Agenda for the New Century

Edited by Joyce E. King

“A Declaration of Intellectual Independence for Human Freedom” by Dr. Joyce King; p. 19-42.

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“Islamic Education in America: An Historical Overview with Future Projections” by Zakiyyah Muhammad; p. 87-96.

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